Kathmandu Durbar Square

Durber means 'palace'it was the man palace of the Kathmandu Valley in 18th centaury that time nepal had more than 75 small country .now is 75 district in Nepal .The king no longer lives in the Hanuman Dhoka (old royal palace) in Kathmandu. The palace was moved north to Narayanhiti a century ago now it is also "narayanhiti musiam"but the square remains the traditional heart of the old town and a spectacular legacy of traditional architecture. it is also know as Basantapur Square.

Kasthamandap

In the southwestern corner of the Dhubar Square, the kasthamandap is the origin Name of the Kathmandu. This building made by the only one tree it is very mystery.Kumari temple: Kumari is the living god of the world. it is also located in the Durbar Square. The bulding, in the style of the courtyard Buddhist Viharas of the Valley.

The Kathmandu Durbar Square holds the palaces of the Malla and Shah kings who ruled over the city. Along with these palaces, the square also surrounds quadrangles revealing courtyards and temples. The square is presently known as Hanuman Dhoka, a name derived from the statue of Hanuman, the monkey devotee of Lord Ram, near the entrance of the palace. The preference for the construction of royal palaces at this site dates back to as early as the Licchavi period in the third century. Even though the present palaces and temples have undergone repeated and extensive renovations and nothing physical remains from that period, names like Gunapo and Gupo, which are the names referred to the palaces in the square in early scriptures, imply that the palaces were built by Gunakamadev, a king ruling late in the tenth century. When Kathmandu City became independent under the rule of King Ratna Malla (1484-1520) the palaces in the square became the royal palaces for its Malla kings. When Prithvi Narayan Shah invaded the Kathmandu Valley in 1769, he also favored the Kathmandu Durbar Square for his palace. Other subsequent Shah kings continued to rule from the square until 1896 when they moved to the Narayan Hiti Palace. However, the square is still the center of important royal events like the coronation of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah in 1975 and King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah in 2001.Though there are not any written archives stating the history of the Kathmandu Durbar Square, the construction of the palace in the square is credited to Sankharadev (1069-1083). As the first king of the independent Kathmandu City, Ratna Malla is said to have built a Taleju temple at the Northern side of the palace in 1501. For this to be true then the temple would have had to have been built in the vihara style as part of the palace premise surrounding the Mul Chok courtyard for no evidence of a separate structure that would match this temple can be found within the square.

The construction of the Karnel Chok is also not clearly stated in any historical inscriptions although it is probably the oldest among all the courtyards in the square. A Bhagavati Temple, originally known as a Narayan Temple, rises above the mansions surrounding it and was added during the time of Jagajaya Malla in the early eighteenth century. The Narayan idol within the temple was stolen so Prithvi Narayan Shah replaced it with an image of Bhagavati, completely transforming the name of the temple.
His successors Sadasiva (1575-1581), his son, Shiva Simha (1578-1619), and his grandson, Laksminar Simha (1619-1641), do not seem to have made any major additions to the square. During this period of three generations the only constructions to have occurred were the establishment of Degutale Temple dedicated to Goddess Mother Taleju by Shiva Simha and some enhancement in the royal palace by Laksminar Simha.It was in the time of Pratap Malla, son of Laksminar Simha, that the square was extensively developed. He was an intellectual, a pious devotee, and he was especially interested in arts. He called himself a Kavindra, king of poets, and boasted that he was learned in fifteen different languages. A passionate builder, following his coronation as a king, he immediately began enlargements to his royal palace, and rebuilt someold temples and constructed new temples, shrines and stupas around his kingdom.

During the construction of his palace, he added a small entrance in the traditional, low and narrow Newari style. The door was elaborately decorated with carvings and paintings of deities and auspicious sings and was later transferred to the entrance of Mohan Chok. In front of the entrance he placed the statue of Hanuman thinking that Hanuman would strengthen his army and protect his home. The entrance leads to Nasal Chok, the courtyard where most royal events such as coronation, performances, and yagyas, holy fire rituals, take place. It was named after Nasadya, the God of Dance, and during the time of Pratap Malla the sacred mask dance dramas performed in Nasal Chok were widely famed. In one of these dramas, it is said that Pratap Malla himself played the role of Lord Vishnu and that the spirit of the Lord remained in the king's body even after the play. After consulting his Tantric leaders, he ordered a stone image of Lord Vishnu in his incarnation as Nara Simha, the half lion and half human form, and then transferred the spirit into the stone. This fine image of Nara Simha made in 1673 still stands in the Nasal Chok. In 1650, he commissioned for the construction of Mohan Chok in the palace. This chok remained the royal residential courtyard for many years and is believed to store a great amount of treasure under its surface. Pratap Malla also built Sundari Chok about this time. He placed a slab engraved with lines in fifteen languages and proclaimed that he who can understand the inscription would produce the flow of milk instead of water from Tutedhara, a fountain set in the outer walls of Mohan Chok. However elaborate his constructions may have been, they were not simply intended to emphasize his luxuries but also his and the importance of others' devotion towards deities. He made extensive donations to temples and had the older ones renovated. Next to the palace, he built a Krishna temple, the Vamsagopala, in an octagonal shape in 1649. He dedicated this temple to his two Indian wives, Rupamati and Rajamati, as both had died during the year it was built. In Mohan Chok, he erected a three roofed Agamachem temple and a unique temple with five superimposing roofs. After completely restoring the Mul Chok, he also donated to the adjoining Taleju Temple. To the main temple of Taleju, he donated metal doors in 1670. He rebuilt the Degutale Temple built by his grandfather, Siva Simha, and the Taleju Temple in the palace square. As a substitute to the Indreswara Mahadeva Temple in the distant village of Panauti he built a Shiva temple, Indrapura, near his palace in the square. He carved hymns on the walls of the Jagannath Temple as prayers to Taleju in the form of Kali.

At the Southern end of the square, near the Kasthamandapa, which was the main city crossroads for early traders, he built another pavilion named Kavindrapura, the mansion of the king of poets. In this mansion he set an idol of dancing Shiva, Nasadyo, which today is highly worshipped by dancers in the Valley.

In the process of beautifying his palace, he added fountains, ponds, and baths. In Sundari Chok, he established a low bath with a golden fountain. He also built a small pond, the Naga Pokhari, in the palace adorned with Nagakastha, a wooden serpent, which is said he had ordered stolen from the royal pond in the Bhaktapur Durbar Square. He also restored the Licchavi stone sculptures such as the Jalasayana Narayana, the Kaliyadamana, and the Kala Bhairav. An idol of Jalasayana Narayana was placed in a newly created pond in the Bhandarkhal garden in the Eastern wing of the palace. As a substitute to the idol of Jalasayana Narayana in Buddhanilkantha, he channeled water from Buddhanilkantha to the pond in Bhandarkhal due bestow authenticity. The Kalyadana, a manifestation of Lord Krishna destroying Kaliya, a water serpent, is placed in Kalindi Chok, which is adjacent to the Mohan Chok. The approximately ten feet high image of terrifyingly portrayed Kal Bhairav is placed near the Jagannath Temple. This image is the focus of worship in the chok especially during Durga Puja.

With the death of Pratap Malla in 1674, the overall emphasis on the importance of the square also came to a halt. His successors retained relatively insignificant power and the prevailing ministers took control of most of the royal rule. The ministers encountered little influence under these kings and, increasingly, interest of the arts and additions to the square was lost on them. They focused less on culture than Pratap Malla during the three decades that followed his death, steering the city and country more towards the arenas of politics and power, with only a few minor constructions made in the square. These projects included Parthivendra Malla building a temple referred to as Trailokya Mohan or Dasavatara, dedicated to Lord Vishnu in 1679. A large statue of Garuda, the mount of Lord Vishnu, was added in front of it a decade later. Parthivendra Malla also added a pillar with image of his family in front of the Taleju Temple.

Around 1692, Radhilasmi, the widowed queen of Pratap Malla, erected the tall temples of Shiva known as Maju Deval near the Garuda image in the square. This temple stands on nine stepped platforms and is one of the tallest buildings in the square. Then her son, Bhupalendra Malla, took the throne and banished the widowed queen to the hills. His death came early at the age of twenty one and his widowed queen, Bhuvanalaksmi, built a temple in the square known as Kageswara Mahadev. The temple was built in the Newari style and acted as a substitute for worship of a distant temple in the hills. After the earthquake in 1934, the temple was restored with a dome roof, which was alien to the Newari architecture.

Jayaprakash Malla, the last Malla king to rule Kathmandu, built a temple for Kumari, Durga in her virginal state. The temple was named Kumari Bahal and was structured like a typical Newari vihara. In his house resides the Kumari, an immature girl who is revered as the living goddess. He also made a chariot for Kumari and in the courtyard had detailed terra cotta tiles of that time laid down.During the Shah dynasty that followed, the Kathmandu Durbar Square saw a number of changes. Two of the most unique temples in the square were built during this time. One is the Nautale, a nine storied building known as Vasantapur Durbar. It has four roofs and stands at the end of Nasal Chok at the East side of the palace. It is said that this building was set as a pleasure house. The lower three stories were made in the Newari farmhouse style. The upper floors have Newari style windows, sanjhya and tikijhya, and some of them are slightly projected from the wall. The other temple is annexed to the Vasantapur Durbar and has four-stories. This building was initially known as Vilasamandira, or Lohom Chok, but is now commonly known as Basantapur or Tejarat Chok. The lower floors of the Basantapur Chok display extensive woodcarvings and the roofs are made in popular the Mughal style. Archives state that Prthivi Narayan Shah built these two buildings in 1770.

Rana Bahadur Shah was enthroned at the age of two. Bahadur Shah, the second son of Prithivi Narayan Shah, ruled as a regent for his young nephew Rana Bahadur Shah for a close to a decade from 1785 to 1794 and built a temple of Shiva Parvati in the square. This one roofed temple is designed in the Newari style and is remarkably similar to previous temples built by the Mallas. It is rectangular in shape, and enshrines the Navadurga, a group of goddesses, on the ground floor. It has a wooden image of Shiva and Parvati at the window of the upper floor, looking out at the passersby in the square. Another significant donation made during the time of Rana Bahadur Shah is the metal-plated head of Swet Bhairav near the Degutale Temple. It was donated during the festival of Indra Jatra in 1795, and continues to play a major role during the festival every year. This approximately twelve feet high face of Bhairav is concealed behind a latticed wooden screen for the rest of the year. The following this donation Rana Bahadur donated a huge bronze bell as an offering to the Goddess Taleju. Together with the beating of the huge drums donated by his son Girvan Yudha, the bell was rung every day during the daily ritual worship to the goddess. Later these instruments were also used as an alarm system. However, after the death of his beloved third wife Kanimati Devi due to smallpox, Rana Bahadur Shah turned mad with grief and had many images of gods and goddesses smashed including the Taleju statue and bell, and Sitala, the goddess of smallpox.

In 1908, a palace, Gaddi Durbar, was built using European architectural designs. The Rana Prime Ministers who had taken over the power but not the throne of the country from the Shahs Kings from 1846 to 1951 were highly influenced by European styles. The Gaddi Durbar is covered in white plaster, has Greek columns and adjoins a large audience hall, all foreign features to Nepali architecture. The balconies of this durbar were reserved for the royal family during festivals to view the square below.
Time and again the temples and the palaces in the square have gone through reconstruction after being damaged by natural causes or neglect. Presently there are less than ten quadrangles in the square. The temples are being preserved as national heritage sites and the palace is being used as a museum. Only a few parts of the palace are open for visitors and the Taleju Temples are only open for people of Hindu and Buddhist faith.Some of the parts of the square like the Hatti Chok near the Kumari Bahal in the Southern section of the square were removed during restoration after the devastating earthquake in 1934. While building the New Road, the Southeastern part of the palace was cleared away, leaving only fragments in places as reminders of their past. Though decreased from its original size and attractiveness from its earlier seventeenth century architecture, the Kathmandu Durbar Square still displays an ancient surrounding that spans abound five acres of land. It has palaces, temples, quadrangles, courtyards, ponds , and images that were brought together over three centuries of the Malla, the Shah, and the Rana dynasties.

Swyambhu Stupa

The Buddhist tempale of Swayambhunathon the top of a hill west Kathmandu, is one of the most popular and in stanty recognisable symbols of Nepal.The is colloquially Known as the Monkey temple after the large trible of handsome monkeys that small pot every morning people come their and put one quoin there if people threw the quion in side they will be lucky.guards the hill and amuses visitor and devotes with tricks .you can see the all kathmandu valley from the Kathmandu Valley .this is temple mainly related with the Buddhist but the people can see the Hindus Temple also there .the stupa is totally related with the mountain due to all stupa design is the mountain style .one is nice place located there is one old peace pond also. in side the pond one this is world peace pond.

Pashupatinath

Pashupatinath, or Pashupati, is a Hindu temple on the banks of the Bagmati River in Deopatan, a village 3 km northwest of Kathmandu. It is dedicated to a manifestation of Shiva called Pashupati (Lord of Animals). It attracts thousands of pilgrims each year and has become well known far beyond the Kathmandu Valley. The temple is barred to non-Hindus, but a good view of the temple can be had from the opposite bank of the river.

History

It is not known for certain when Pashupatinath was founded. Tradition says it was constructed by Pashupreksha of the Somadeva Dynasty in the 3rd century BC, but the first historical records date from the 13th century. The ascetic Pashupata sect was likely related to its foundation.Pashupati was a tutelary deity of the ancient rulers of the Kathmandu Valley; in 605 AD, Amshuvarman considered himself favored by his touching of the god's feet.By the later Middle Ages, many imitations of the temple had been built, such as in Bhaktapur (1480), Lalitpur (1566) and Benares (early 19th century). The original temple was destroyed several times until it was given its present form under King Bhupalendra Malla in 1697.According to a legend recorded in local texts, especially the Nepalamahatmya and the Himavatkhanda, the Hindu god Shiva once fled from the other gods in Varanasi to Mrigasthali, the forest on the opposite bank of the Bagmati River from the temple. There, in the form of a gazelle, he slept with his consort Parvati. When the gods discovered him there and tried to bring him back to Varanasi, he leapt across the river to the opposite bank, where one of his horns broke into four pieces. After this, Shiva became manifest as Pashupati (Lord of Animals) in a four-face (chaturmukha) linga.

Boudhanth Stupa

Buddhanath is located nurve centre of the Kathmandu valley. it is 6 KM east from the thamel and just near from the Airport. it is largest stupa of the Nepal and one of the largest stupa of the World.there is more Tibeten people staying and many many art to the tibetan style .there are number of thriving monasteries and many small shop also there. There doesn't seem to be much agreement on how old the budnath site is,but it is likely that the first stupa was built some time after after th e tibetan king songtsen Gampo ,was converted to Buddhism by ht e two wives. One Dalai Lama Temple also located there .you can see the 108 image out the dayani Buddha.

Kopan Monastery

It is popular for the Buddhism and other Tibetan related subject. All the Kathmandu Valley we can see from the Copan Monastery .it is really really nice attractive place .when people will be Kathmandu if you want to visit Kathmandu Valley you have to go Kopan monastery you can get the heaven of the Buddha religion. you can get a Tibetan medicine also amd small shopping also .Top of the Kopan monastery you can get the test of the Buddha religion.

Patan

Bhaktpur Durbar Square (World Heritage site)
The city of Bhaktpur lies 14km to the est. of the Kathmandu .its Durbar Square is a symphony of art and architecture. The centerpiece is the 55-window palace overlooking the Square which is paved over with brick. The history of the palace dates back to the 12th century. It was the intermediate trade centre of the china Tibet and India. These are the nice sightseeing area of the Bhaktapur.

55 Windows place
The Palace of 55 windows was built in the seventeenth century by King Bhupatindra Malla. Among the brick walls with their gracious setting and sculptural design, is a balcony of 55 windows. This balcony is a masterpieace of wood carving.

Dattatreya Temple
Built in 1427 A.D. this temple is said to have been built from trunk of a single tree. Near this temple is a monastery with exquisitely carved peacock windows.

The Golden Gate
Golden gate is the entrance to the main courtyard of the Palace of 55 windows. Built King Ranjit Malla, the Gate is one of the most beautiful and richly carved specimens of its kind in the entire world. This gate is embellished with deities and monsters of marvellous intricacy.

Changu Narayan (world Heritage site):
The temple of Changu Narayan is situated on a peninsular ridge to the north of Bhaktapur.It was build in the third centaury and is dedicated to Loard Vishnu. The temple is the most ancient specimen of pagoda-roofed shrine in the Valley. It is decorated with some of the finest stone, metel and woodcrafts. most of this architectural wealth was put together during the reign of the malla king who ruled the Kathmandu Valley from the 13th to the 18th centuries .The temple is though to have been built by vishnu Gupta, and was later added to by Hari Datta Verma in 323 A.D.The surrounding views are splendid and the temple is a living museum .from Kathmandu, it is 8 miles in the eastern direction.

Surya Vinayak:
Dedicated to the Elephant god, adoms a wooded hillside south of Bhaktapur.King Vishnu Verma who must have had an eye for commanding locals built it.Surya Vinayak catches the first rays of the rising sun. From here, we can also see the huddled roof of Bhaktapur twered over by snow peks silhuetting above in the horizon .This pla

Patan Dubar square (World Heritage site):
Patan is very close with kathmandu.it is also known as second largest town of the valley. It is also know as art centre of the Nepal. The ancient city of patan, lying 5 Kms Southest of Kathmandu, is considered as oldest of all three cities of the Kathmandu Valley. it has historically been known but the means Yala and Lalitpur.The city is full if Hindu temples an d Buddhist monuments.it is founded in third century a.D,by King Veera Dev.The most important monument area,of course is patan Durbar Square.
it was the royal place of the lalitpur Country in 16th cemtury.now it is the capital of the lalitpur distric.when you will be the patan you can imagine the art of palace, Temple, and one nice musiam.Famous Temple of the Patan.

Bhimsen Mandir:
Bhimsen mandir is very famous for patan it is hindu god. At the northern end of Durbar Sq, the Bhimsen Temple is dedicated to the god of trade and business, which possibly explains its well-kept and prosperous look. Bhimsen, a hero of the Mahabharata, was said to be extraordinarily strong. Look out for the place settings with bowls, spoons and cups nailed up on the roof struts as offerings.The three-storey temple has had a chequered history. Although it is not known when it was first built, an inscription records that it was rebuilt in 1682 after a fire. Restorations also took place after the great 1934 earthquake, and again in 1967. A lion tops a pillar in front of the temple, while the brick building has an artificial marble façade and a gilded façade on the 1st floor.

Krishna Mandir

Patan Mahabuddha

Maha Bouddha of Patan: Temple of 9,000 Buddhas
This temple’s uniqueness is attributed to about 9,000 Buddha figures which have been chiseled on every brick of the temple. The terracotta bricks are manufactured from high quality clay. Also called the Maha Bouddha, this temple is recognized worldwide by the name of “Temple of Thousands of Buddhas”.Standing silently in the nooks and corners of the Kathmandu Valley’s cities, many Nepali architectural masterpieces and works of wonder seem to remain hidden from all. As these well-known glories of yesteryears slowly fade from the public’s memories, thei phenomenal existence enters a void of oblivion.One of such several human miracles, the Maha Bouddha Temple of Oku Bahal in Patan is also on the verge of being forgotten. Located amidst dense human settlement, this huge temple resides in a courtyards surrounded by public houses. But once inside Oku Bahal, no one can help gasping with amazement.While the alley leading to this temple is lined with several shops exhibiting the fine metal craftsmanship of the natives of Patan, the temple boasts of the dexterity of the ancestors of these very natives. According to the archeological records, the first stone of this temple was laid in 1564 AD, and it took almost 36 years for this grand construction to be completed.

According to extant documents, Abhaya Raj, a local who lived in Oku Bahal, constructed the temple. Legends have it that this man was visited by Lord Buddha Himself in his dream. So he made a pilgrimage with his wife to Bodh Gaya. The locals also talk about a myth that on the couple’s return trip back home, a boy monk followed them up to Patan. This was taken as a propitious sign by the religious man and he started constructing the temple.Built in the Shikar-Kut style, the structures of the temple is said to be a replica of a Buddha temple of Bodh Gaya, the place where Lord Buddha attained enlightment.

"To build a replica of the Buddha temple of Bodh Gaya was almost a tradition amongst the devout Buddhist of the 16th century. People who followed Buddhism used to construct similar types of Buddhist temples in their own countries after visiting Bodh Gaya" says Hari Ram Joshi, a senior historian.

Golden Temple in Patan:
This beautiful and tranquil temple in Nepal is an unusual Buddhist monastery known commonly as ‘Hiranya Varna Mahabihar’, ‘Kwa Bahal’ or ‘Suvarna Mahavihara’ and is situated north of Durbar Square. Legend has it that the Golden Temple was founded during the 12th Century. Patan's Golden Temple is unassuming from the outside and majestic on the inside, with stone gates produced by the silakars whose descendants can still be seen working in the woodcarving industry.

Throughout the architecture and design, faith can be seen running through the rectangular building standing in support of three roofs encapsulating the richness and wealth donated to the temple with images of Buddha, Avalokiteswar, shrines and sacred spots where pilgrims can stop and pay homage to the many great teachers and martyrs. At the entrance to the old Temple lies a clock tower with four large gateways. The Golden Temple's doors stand wide open, symbolizing the acceptance of all religions, walks of life and faith in accordance with the poem written by Jaap Sahib’s prayer: “Des our na bhes jakar, rup rekh na rag jattra tattra disa visa, hue phaileo anurag”, which means “The almighty has no country, no traditional costume, no mark, no form and favors no one in particular. The almighty is present in every place, on every side and in every corner; this universal love exists everywhere”. It is hard to believe that with all the peaceful serenity felt all around that history could have set this as the site for bloodshed most awful at the steps of this holy temple.

It is the interior of this building that one finds themselves transported into a whole new world. From the white marble walls to the beautiful marble inlays designed intricately onto the pavement floor framing the tank. You can view the love and respect of many pilgrims as they wash their feet and perform a clockwise ‘parikrama’, a processional walk that takes them around this beautifully surrounded tank. Within this tank lies the magnificent Golden temple described as a ‘jeweled casket’ floating in the amrit (the water of immortality), and believed that should the waters of the philosophy of faith be ingested a promise of life eternal is his alone. The waters of amrit are legendary because of its healing powers, vitality and health given to those who believe.

The Golden Temple was founded during the faith of Guru Arian Dev, becoming of great worth to the Sikh people mainly due to being the resting place for the original Guru Sahib. In the Nepalese Temmple is a holy book holding over 7,000 hymns. Interestingly, the writers of this holy book are made up of Gurus and saints of different religions and social classes.

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